this is our group report at school today.
~~ Peer-to-Peer Communication
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application.
Also commonly referred to as P2P, P-to-P and P2P communications, peer-to-peer communication refers to the transmission between two peer computers over a network. P2P became widely known by computer users as they began sharing MP3s and other files over P2P networks. For example, Napster is an example of a P2P software application. After downloading and installing this program users were able to connect with other computers, search for songs, and download any of them freely.
What is a Peer to Peer Connection?
A peer to peer connection is a computer network in which all computers in the network have identical capabilities. There is no server computer, with more capabilities or authorities, than the other computers in the network. In a peer to peer network connection, any computer can initiate the communication process. Any other computer in the network can access resources from any other machine, which that machine wants to share. In other words, all the computers in the network are given both client and server functionalities. With the basic question, what is a peer to peer connection answered, we are now in a position to proceed towards the process of peer to peer connection setup.
s of a Peer to Peer Connection
With a peer to peer connection, there is no chances of the entire network to fail because of the failure of a single system on which the entire network depends; as in the case of client-server setup. In a client-server network, failure of the server means failure of the entire system. Another advantage of a peer to peer connection is that adding more computers to the network would mean increase in the number of resources (memory space, bandwidth etc.). But in case of a client-server network, adding more computers in the system will increase the system load on the server.
Disadvantage of a Peer to Peer Connection
A peer to peer connection is not as secure as a server-client network. Providing a single security blanket on the server could secure the entire network. Besides, in a server-client configuration, it is possible to monitor the workings of other computers in the network.
Peer to peer connection setups are very popular and is the prime reasons for heavy traffic on the Internet. Standard client-server configurations like the SMTP, also use the peer to peer configuration.
The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. It evolved from ARPANET, which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called theInternet Model or the DoD Model.
The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Layers in the TCP/IP model
Application – represents a data to the user plus encoding and dialogue control.
Transport – supports communication between diverse devices across diverse networks.
Internet – determines the best path through the network.
Network Access – controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network.
Detailed encapsulation process
2.3.7 This page describes the process of encapsulation.
All communications on a network originate at a source, and are sent to a destination. The information sent on a network is referred to as data or data packets. If one computer (host A) wants to send data to another computer (host B), the data must first be packaged through a process called encapsulation.
Encapsulation wraps data with the necessary protocol information before network transit. Therefore, as the data packet moves down through the layers of the OSI model, it receives headers, trailers, and other information.
To see how encapsulation occurs, examine the manner in which data travels through the layers as illustrated in Figure . Once the data is sent from the source, it travels through the application layer down through the other layers. The packaging and flow of the data that is exchanged goes through changes as the layers perform their services for end users. As illustrated in Figure , networks must perform the following five conversion steps in order to encapsulate data:
1. Build the data – As a user sends an e-mail message, its alphanumeric characters are converted to data that can travel across the internet work.
2. Package the data for end-to-end transport – The data is packaged for internet work transport. By using segments, the transport function ensures that the message hosts at both ends of the e-mail system can reliably communicate.
3. Add the network IP address to the header – The data is put into a packet or datagram that contains a packet header with source and destination logical addresses. These addresses help network devices send the packets across the network along a chosen path.
4. Add the data link layer header and trailer – Each network device must put the packet into a frame. The frame allows connection to the next directly-connected network device on the link. Each device in the chosen network path requires framing in order for it to connect to the next device.
5. Convert to bits for transmission – The frame must be converted into a pattern of 1s and 0s (bits) for transmission on the medium. A clocking function enables the devices to distinguish these bits as they travel across the medium. The medium on the physical internet work can vary along the path used. For example, the e-mail message can originate on a LAN, cross a campus backbone, and go out a WAN link until it reaches its destination on another remote LAN. ~~
end of the report!!
this is the whole shit of our report in out course CCIT04 ( Networking).
this is the whole shit of our report in out course CCIT04 ( Networking).this is a rushed one, i only made it these when i woke up this morning. i was like, having an uncombed hair, din't even hit the bathroom to take a pee and worst was, i hadn't brush my teeth yet.. it's really a shitty one cause none of my group mates did not contribute any of our research.. i hate it when i'm always the one doing the group work..!!! (DAMN IT!)
at our class we had so much pressure knowing that our classmates are ahead of a year from us, despite from of being so noisy, they don't even have a consideration. they did not know that i was only the one who prepare this plus it was damn rushed! most of the higher years criticize our report, i was so pissed when one of them volunteer to add some articles relating to our topic. and again i was so angry and pissed to them although his additional report doesn't even related on our topic. He's making a fool of his self!
the thing is that really makes me angry is when we already finish the discussion, we had to give them a quiz, and damn one of my classmates are shouting the damn answers of it.. my patience begun to melt easily upon the situation and i just say it out loud to that particular student ~ "SHUT UP!!" in front of everyone including my stupid teacher.. i make their quiz easy, because i don't want hearing some bullshit from the higher years already!
the bottom line is ~ i was to damn unlucky today!
unlucky moment no.
1. i hadn't talk to my bf until now ( his in the other side of the earth.)
2. i went malling with my friends and spent a lot of money for nonsense things.
3. upon our report in the class of CCIT04, our dean came in and observe us.
4. most of my classmates throw a lot of question that makes our group look stupid especially when one of my group mate did not know the answers.
5. i can't login into my other blog site.
What a day! i hope it'll turned out to be good upon the coming days.. so HELP MO GOD!